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Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Cure, Therapy and effect on Bone formation

Editorials Huge Health Medicals - 03:37:00
Diabetes has currently affected over 350 million individuals around the globe. It is a disorder that affects metabolism (metabolic pathway). Increase in blood glucose levels above normal (Hyperglycemia) the feature of the disease condition. Diabetes is otherwise referred to as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and has won Medical research focus since its discovery. 

Types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 

Diabetes can either arise from any of the three conditions:
When the body can not produce Insulin (Type 1 diabetes Mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes , juvenile diabetes , or early-onset diabetes) Insulin is a hormone that plays crucial role in metabolism. In this case the beta cells of the Pancreas that produce insulin is destroyed. It occurs to people of any age but mostly those close to 40 years of age and it is rarely diagnosed when compared to Type 2 diabetes. 
Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus
When the cells of the body no longer respond to the available insulin in the blood (Insulin resistance), Or the quantity of a insulin produced does not meet the quantity required (Type 2 diabetes) . The condition progress overtime to worst (a point were the patient substitute other management tips with insulin drug therapy(Insulin Replacement Therapy). It is most prevalent in Obese and Overweight individuals. It is the only type of diabetes commonly diagnosed (approximately 90% of diabetes cases) and risk of development increases as one advances in age. 
During pregnancy Women may experience Increased blood glucose levels (Hyperglycemia) which Usually goes back to normal after childbirth or exercise (Gestational diabetes) . It is common in women with high animal fat and cholesterol. 

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus 

Diabetes Mellitus can be diagnosed indoor using blood glucose readers. One can carry out a test by piercing and dropping a drop blood on the sensitive part of this reader and result is readout. Outcome of the test is compared to normal blood glucose range to be able to tell the condition. Higher values more than normal shows how critical the condition has gone. 
The three methods of testing for blood glucose level include :
 A1C test: result less than 5.7% is normal, 
Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT) : less than 100mg/dl is normal
Oral glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) : less than 140mg/dl is normal

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus 

Diabetes is closely related to disease conditions like Fatty stomach or visceral fat and Obesity
Nutrition can also be the origin of diabetes as fatty foods, abuse of alcoholic drinks, high salt, high sugar diets etc. 
Lifestyle pattern like smoking and leading a sedentary lifestyle can trigger other disease condition which will later usher in diabetes 
Certain drugs and compounds that inhibit insulin production or uptake (like insulin antagonist) or those that have the potential of  destroying the beta cells. 

Symptoms of diabetes Mellitus 

Increased urination (Hyperuria) 
Increased food consumption (Polyphagia) 
Lost of glucose in urine (glucosuria) 
Increased taste (Polydipsia) 
Blurred vision 
Smelling breath
Stomach pains, cramps, vomiting and discomforts 
Abrupt Weight loss/gain
Increased blood glucose or sugar level (Hyperglycemia) 

Complications of diabetes Mellitus 

(Occurs during delayed treatment during which treatment will not restore damged tissues) 
Damage to Brain, Nerve, Liver, Heart, Ear, Eye
Delayed wound healing 
Lost of fertility and skin, foot complications 

Cure, Management or Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus 

All types of Diabetes are totally curable. Below tips are proven management strategies for treating or curing diabetes. 
Eat Healthy diet
Excercise regularly 
Avoid drinking and drug abuse 
Follow physicians prescription regarding taking insulin drugs for type 1 diabetic patients 

Therapy for diabetes Mellitus 

GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are a novel class of drugs used for treatment of type 2 diabetes as they have the potential of stimulating insulin secretion, increase beta cell mass and suppress the secreation of the hormone glucagon. Currently, four such drugs available in the United States: 
Exendin-4 or its synthetic version exenatide, 
liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide. 

Diabetes Mellitus and Bone Mineralization (Bone Absorption and Resorption) 

Research shows that Diabetes mellitus often leads to the development of osteoporosis, a bone disorder. Both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect bone mineral density (BMD) and the risk of bone fractures. The impact of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism is drawing increasing attention due to the discovery of a association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis. Glucagon - like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is said to promote bone formation while inhibiting bone resorption. The mechanism of GLP-1 has arouse many research for example The research on The Impact of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Bone Metabolism and Its Possible Mechanisms by Chenhe an others (2017) has brought more light to the molecular process of the GLP-1 in bone formation and desorption. 
Chenke's work indicated that "such therapies may enhance BMD and improve bone quality, but the relationship between GLP-1 and bone fractures is still controversial. Further investigations of the relevant mechanisms have indicated that GLP-1 acts on bone tissue by promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. Furthermore, the homeostasis of bone formation and resorption is essential to bone health and might be maintained by GLP-1 in normal bones and restored by GLP-1 in unhealthy bones."
Further Reading 

 Zhao C, Liang J, Yang Y, Yu M and Qu X (2017) The Impact of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Bone Metabolism and Its Possible Mechanisms. Front. Endocrinol. 8:98. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00098

Secondhand Smokers (SHS), Health risks and Protection

Samuel Sunday - 10:56:00

What is Secondhand smoke and who are secondhand smokers? 

Secondhand smoke (SHS) is otherwise referred to as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Why the name? It is because the Tobacco smoke comes from two sources viz; That released by the smoker (Mainstream) and that from the burning end of the cigarette or pipe (Sidestream). The sidestream smoke contains cancer causing chemical compounds (carcinogens), because they are tiny particles, it invade the lungs and other cells of the body altering the normal structure and function of such cell or tissue. 

When non smokers inhale secondhand smokes (SHS) - involuntary smoking or passive smoking, the sidestream smoke and mainstream smoke are concomitantly inhaled which increases the concentration of nicotine and other toxic compounds in the body. 
Risk of Secondhand Smokes

Why are Secondhand smokers in danger? 

 According to a report published by centers for diseases control and prevention (CDC) Secondhand smoke contains more than 7,000 chemicals. Hundreds are toxic while 70 can cause cancer. New report has shown that secondhand smokers are liable to develop stroke after long-term accumulation of the toxic chemicals. When the smoke is exhaled by the smoker, the toxic compounds becomes more concentrates as it reacts with carbon monoxide and other toxic compounds that are readily available in the air. When this combined toxic substances finds way into the lungs, it affects function and structure. As this continues over a long period of secondhand smoking, cancers sets in. Therefore giving no risk free exposure to secondhand smokers or smokes. 

Dangers of Secondhand smoking / Smokes 

In Adults 
Secondhand smokes constitute world's leading cause of adult death and has triggered several health complications among millions of non smokers who inhale secondhand smokes. Some of the health problems possed by secondhand smokes include

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including

Cancers of the lungs (lung cancers) , Larynx (voice box), Pharynx (throat), Nasal sinuses, Brain, Bladder, Rectum, Stomach, Breast. 

In Pregnant women (Pregnancy) 
Smoking during pregnancy can be detrimental to the fetus and even after birth can result in many infant mortality and other complications. During pregnancy secondhand smokes can cause 
  • Low birth weight
  • Nasal irritation 
  • Reproductive complications 
  • Cancers of the breast, vagina, placenta 

In Children and Infants
Secondhand smokes or smoking can cause numerous health complications in infants and children, including 

Preventing Health problems arising from secondhand smokes / smoking

There is no safe concentration or level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Thus Adult, pregnant woman, infant and children require total smoke free existence as any exposure is harmful to the body. 

What are some of the measures required to prevent health problems arising from secondhand smokes? 

The only measure that can fully protect non-smokers (Adults, pregnant women and infants) from exposure to secondhand smokes (SHS)  is by prohibition or stoppage of smoking or avoidance of smokes both indoor and outdoor. 

Parents can protect their children from Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and other Sudden death related occurrence by keeping them away from smokes. 

  1. Secondhand Smokes. Center for Disease Control and Control. 
  2. Health risks of Secondhand Smokes. American Cancer Society

Climate Change, Health effects and Role of physicians

Samuel Sunday - 03:04:00
Climate change has been a problem experienced by people of all ages, countries and regions. If one is asked when he/she witness a Climate change, the answer will not be a past tense but continuous tense will be right for something that is happening right now. How can physicians help during climte change? This will be considered later in this article. 

 Effect of climate change 

Climate change results in a continuous increase in temperature, sea level, destruction of Man's natural Shelter / home. 

 Climate change impact human health through disruption of quality air and water, extreme heat, floods and giving rise to disease outbreaks because there will be proliferation of cyanobacterium and other diseases causing micro organisms which invade drinking water and cause diarrhea and other health problems. 

 Depletion of nutritious fruits and vegetables through destruction by heat - global warming resulting in malnutrition 

 Disruption of ozone layer thereby increasing GreenHouse gases in the earth crust which exposes humans to DNA Structure impairment giving rise to skin and other carcinomas, respiratory and cardiac infarction and other health complications. 

Older adults, pregnant women and young children are adversely affected by climate changes because of their reduced ability to tolerate high temperatures, shortage of water and food. During such time, the mental health and general function of the body is impacted by the changes in environmental conditions. 

Effect of climate change on health

 Policies and Actions targeted towards a reduced climate change. 

Among numerous policies that are in place to help regulate climate change, major considerations are given to two techniques as both are most detrimental to climate reservation. They include ; Reduction in burning fossil fuels. This include operating engines that releases hazardous gases like carbon monoxide which buildups green gases in the earth crust. Rather other methods like bioremediation and biofuels / organic fuels are employed in cooking, transportation and running plants. Cutting trees are prohibited. This act opens up the shield provided by green leavy plants and trees on the earth crust against ultraviolet radiations. To reduce greenhouse gases, planting of trees is encouraged. 

How can Physicians help during climate change? 

 According to a recent article Responding to climate change in BC by Emily Peterson (MPH) and James Lu (MD) on the role of physicians in climate change, they gave suggestions that can help reduce mortality during climate change. Some of the suggestions included That physicians should; 

Be upto date in factors and impacts of climate change so that they can be able to educate patients and other people on the subject. 

 Take preventive measures to reduce emission of greenhouse gasses from hospitals, laboratories or any activity. 

 Increase number of trained experts in the aspect of managing climate change related problems and calling for backup as fast as possible whenever need be. 

Carryout regular test and prognosis to forecast the future health or disease outbreak from a militating agent. 

 Further Reading 

 Emily Peterson and James Lu. 2017. Responding to Climatic Change in BC: What can physicians do?. BCMJ. Council on Health promotion. 59(4). pp227,229

Benefits and Risks of Increased Physical activity on Heart function and Men's Sexual Libido

Samuel Sunday - 02:27:00

Benefit and Risk of Increased Physical activity on Heart function and Men's Sexual Libido

Physical activity is required for healthy living, this has been documented throughout time and today physical activity is seen as the only way through which upto 25 primary and secondary Chronic medical diseases including cardiovascular disease, obesity can be manage.  One can either engage in a reduced to vigorous excercise depending on ones tolerant level. Deciding the amount of physical activity one needs can put us off reasoning that is why it varies depending on the intended objective. While vigorous exercise can transiently increase the short-term risk for an adverse cardiac event, relatively small amounts of exercise can markedly reduce the long-term risk for chronic disease and premature mortality. 

Prolonged strenuous exercise training or events have been associated with various risks, including sudden cardiac death, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, and pathological remodeling of the myocardium. The optimum and minimum amounts of physical activity/exercise needed to achieve health benefits are disputed. This article will discuss some of the health risks expected during increased physical activity. 
Despite the risk-benefit paradox, it is clear that the health benefits of physical activity far outweigh the risks, and virtually everyone can benefit from becoming more physically active.

Excercise and heart function

Benefit of regular or routine physical activity / exercise 

Physical activity can reduce 20% to 30% Mortality rate of adult and can even reduce upto 50% when recommended physical activity levels are followed. The rate of physical activity can be employed in predicting the mobility rate that will occur from chronic diseases like obesity and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Physical inactiveness according to world health organization is the fourth leading cause of adult deaths. Exercise leading the list of natural remedies for diseses with the ability to ameliorate 25 chronic medical conditions both from primary and secondary causatives agents. This have made Exercise to be enlisted in the recommended health guide for proper health. 

What effect does intensity of exercise have on Healthy living?

There is a dose dependent response in the amount of exercise. Effects of different exercise intensities on all Individual will still be towards an improved health, this means that a previously inactive participant will still benefit greatly from light to moderate exercise intensities,  there is only get a minor additional mortality reduction with a further increase in the activity level and intensity. A  diminishing returns in health benefits can be seen at higher volumes of physical activity and the greatest changes in health status seen when physically inactive individuals become more physically active. Result still will led to a significant reduction in the risk of premature mortality.  

The relationship between health status and physical activity can differ based on the endpoint being evaluated (e.g., blood pressure control, glucose homeostasis, functional status). Evidence indicates that a volume of activity less than half of what is currently recommended by most international guidelines is sufficient for clinically relevant health benefits. Changes in choice of exercise (engaging in aerobic excercise workouts and yoga) can help build musculoskeletal fitness because daily activities that tax the musculoskeletal system can improve health status and reduce the risk for chronic disease, disability, and premature mortality. 

Health risks of vigorous and prolonged strenuous exercise 

There have been several cases of Sudden cardiac death incidences in highly trained athletes from diverse sporting disciplines. For example modern-day Olympic endurance event were inspired by the death story of legend Pheidippides (450 BC), who died after a race. Also the case of myocardial infarction during a marathon race in the Annals of Internal Medicine in 1976. This case involved a 44-year-old male competing in the 1973 Boston Marathon. The autopsy revealed myocardial scarring with normal coronary vessels, leading the authors describing the case to state that “Advocates of long-distance running for prevention of, or rehabilitation from, ischemic heart disease should be aware of this possible complication.”

According to Franklin and Billecke, an estimated 7 million Americans receive medical attention for sports- and recreation-related injuries each year. The majority of these injuries are musculoskeletal in nature (e.g., strains, sprains, fractures); however, of particular concern are the life-threatening events associated with vigorous exertion that can occur in susceptible individuals eg sudden cardiac arrest and myocardial infarction. Highly trained athletes engage in prolonged and strenuous excercises , they doubles the international recommendations for normal health with the hope of increasing performance. When these individuals are enrolled in epidemiology studies to compare their outcome to physical activity, results prove extreme risk of Cardiovascular infarction and sudden Heart / cardiac death. 

Another risk of increased vigorous exercise is that one that affects the Sexual libido. According to an article published  ahead of print on 13 February 2017 in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise reveals a study from University of North Carolina on 1077 subjects on endurance exercise training and male sexual libido. The authors conclude that exposure to higher levels of chronic intense and greater durations of endurance training on a regular basis are significantly associated with decreased libido scores in men. In this study, both moderate and light physical activity is associated with relatively high libidos.

Conclusively Darren and others suggested that some people need far less physical exercise than currently recommended in many physical activity guidelines and that it can lead to clinically relevant changes in health status. The dose-response relationship between physical activity and health is similar to the relationship seen with other medicines, where an attenuation of benefit is found at the extreme end of the physical activity range. As such, the axiom that “more exercise is better” may not apply. In fact, individuals training for ultra-endurance events and leaving little time for recovery between events appear to be at an increased risk for the development of CVD and should be cautioned about the perils involved. Also a moderate and light physical activity should be an option as it relatively increase Sexual libidos.

Further  Reading 

Darren E.R. Warburton,  Jack Taunton, Shannon S.D. Bredin,  Saul Isserow. 2016. The risk-benefit paradox of exercise.  BCMJ.  58(4) pp210-218.
Hackney AC, Lane AR, Register-Mihalik J, O’Leary CB. 2017.  Endurance exercise training and male sexual libido. Med Sci Sports Exerc.

 Thompson PD, Franklin BA, Balady GJ, et al. 2007. Exercise and acute cardiovascular events: Placing the risks into perspective: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Council on Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism and the Council on Clinical Cardiology. Circulation. 115:2358-2368.

Green LH, Cohen SI, Kurland G. Fatal myocardial infarction in marathon racing. Ann Intern Med 1976;84:704-706.

Diagnosing Shoulder pains and imaging

Samuel Sunday - 01:27:00

Diagnosing Shoulder pains or injuries using Imaging

Shoulder pains has always been a problem to many people and this is also why shoulder pains has recorded a leading cause of musculoskeletal disorder. Shoulder pains can rob one the free socket rotation of the shoulder and over time can result in long term physical disorder or disability.  
Pathologies or disorders affecting the shoulder function 
The primary disorder of the shoulder is pains while secondary include ;
  • Rotatory cuff tear (RCT) 
  • Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis (AO) 
  • Traumatic Instability (I)
  • Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) 

Diagnosis of Shoulder Pain and other Pathology 

Diagnosing a shoulder pain requires the physiology and anatomy of the shoulder which will be challenging or not even possible in the presence of many or multiple shoulder pathologies because of how complex the shoulder is in its operations and arrangement of the parts. 

Pains in the shoulder region

Process of Shoulder Pain Diagnosis 

To be able to diagnose a shoulder pathological, patient's shoulder is evaluated for physical damage which may then be followed by imaging to verify the diagnosis. If necessary the patient is referred to an orthopedic expert for treatment.  

Advanced imaging techniques is considered to confer added benefit while increasing the diagnostic accuracy. However there have been several studies regarding this claim and that the use of additional imaging or specialist will rather have a reduced impact on the care patients receive. Thus the increased demand for advanced imaging and subsequent specialist referral may serve little purpose and may increase wait times for these services. Believing that a stringent evaluation of advanced imaging and referral patterns in assessing shoulder pain would be of value, Dr. Geoff and friends proposed a study to investigate the assessment of common shoulder pathologies encountered in the primary care setting. 

The study also sought to analyze imaging relevance and diagnostic concordance between referring physicians and orthopaedic surgeons. Other outcomes proposed included the wait time between referral and orthopaedic assessment, and the percentage of surgical referrals. They also  hypothesized a discordance between referring and orthopaedic specialist diagnoses.

 Dr. Geoff and friends conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study utilizing 150 patient chart reviews to compare the diagnoses of referring physicians with the diagnoses of an orthopaedic specialist. Their study included all patients referred to the practice of a single shoulder surgeon between January 2011 and May 2015. Patients were identified through an electronic medical record system (Plexia) using International Classification of Diseases codes for four common shoulder pathologies: rotator cuff tear, glenohumeral osteoarthritis, instability, and adhesive capsulitis. Primary outcome measures were referring diagnoses and imaging studies available at the time of referral, and the final diagnoses determined by the orthopaedic specialist. Imaging studies ordered by the referring physicians were classified as “indicated” based on standard orthopaedic management or as “not medically indicated” (beyond what is necessary for diagnosis or treatment). “Underinvestigated” was used to describe the absence of imaging considered relevant to establishing a diagnosis. In addition, surgical cases extracted from the referral database were recorded and referral wait times were determined.

 Depending on the shoulder pathology, the referring diagnosis corresponded to the specialist diagnosis from 21% to 97% of the time. The most common example of imaging deemed not medically indicated was the use of MRI for suspected adhesive capsulitis. The most common example of underinvestigation was the lack of X-ray images for the four shoulder pathologies studied. The mean wait time to see an orthopaedic specialist following referral was 138 (99) days. The result of this study made Dr. Geoff and his friends highlight the need for improved collaboration between the primary care physician and orthopaedic specialist regarding common shoulder pathologies and use of imaging studies.

Further Reading 
Geoff C. Jarvie. Jeffrey M. Pike. Danny P. Goel. 2017. Diagnoses and imaging utilization for common shoulder disorders by referring physicians in British Columbia. BCMJ. 59(4) pp.222-226.

Toxins, poisons and toxicants of biological and chemical origin, action in the body, symptoms and natural antidotes.

Editorials Huge Health Medicals - 23:22:00

    Toxins, poisons and toxicants
    The word toxins, poison may be scary to you. What makes it sound the way they are pronounced? Toxic substances or toxicants include all biological or chemical contaminants that confer deleterious or hazardous effect on living organism on ingestion or interaction with tissues. A toxin is substitutable with poison while poisons are considered a group of toxins. They include all foreign compounds to the body (xenobiotic). It can be a gas, liquid and solid from inorganic sources (chemicals) or biological sources (plants or animal toxins).

    Before poison or a toxin is able to cause damage to the body or death then it must have been in a concentration or doses that the body cannot tolerate or suppress. Individual’s genetic makeup, sex of victim, nutritional status of the victim, route of poison entrance into the body, age of victim and the time of poisoning are some factors that influence the damage a poison will cause in an individual.

    Some plants capable of causing health threats

    Some plant species that have been reported to contain compounds that are hazardous to health include bitter almond, cassava, sorghum (guinea corn), lima beans, fava beans, mushroom, vetch peas, chick peas, kidney beans etc. These plants are said to contain glycoproteins that bind to components of tissues or biomolecules. For example they can bind to carbohydrates which are components of cell wall of red blood cells thereby agglutinating red blood cell. Some cause abdominal discomfort or impair absorption of certain nutrients on ingestion.

    Some chemicals capable of causing health threats

    Some of the compounds present in industrial or household products can affect normal function of the body if it enters or spills on the body. Some of these compounds include bases, acids, anilines, atropines, hydrogen cyanide, heavy metals, plastics, carbon monoxides, agrochemicals and biocides (herbicides, pesticides, insecticides etc.), alcohols, glycosides, carbon monoxides, opiates, metallic compounds.

     Symptoms of poisoning and intoxication

    Symptoms of poisoning or intoxication may show up immediately after poisoning or a times later in the future (up to 10 years) depending on some of the factors that we provided above as determinants of how poison act in the body. These symptoms will differ among individuals depending on the genetic makeup and the variability in body’s tolerance but below are general symptoms expected immediately after poisoning or later in the future.
    • ·        Skin (lip) burns
    • ·        Pupil of eye dilated or contracted
    • ·        Unexpected diarrhea
    • ·        Vomiting
    • ·        Order of peach
    • ·        Irregular heart beats
    • ·        Convulsion
    • ·        Mental confusion
    • ·        Muscular paralysis
    • ·        Respiratory distress
    • ·        Renal failure
    • ·        Fatigue
    • ·        Shortness of breath
    • ·        Nausea
    • ·        Abdominal pains and stomach upset
    • ·        Weakness
    • ·        Unconsciousness
    • ·        Jaundice

    Mode of action or mechanism of action of poisons or toxins

    Some substances which originally were not poisons may become poisons after metabolism, which is after the body’s enzyme might have acted on it to produce its product. Though the body has ways of suppressing actions of poisons, some poisons may over power the body’s mechanism or prove stubborn depending on how they act when inside the body. Presented below are some of the mechanisms employed by various poisons.

       Most poisons cause damage to the body by reacting with major enzymes that are involved in crucial pathways of life. For example cyanogenic glycosides present in cassava and other plants exert its effect by binding to cytochrome oxidase (Fe3+) enzyme present in the mitochondrial electron transport chain leading to disruption of respirator system at the cellular level of organization.

      Damage resulting from accumulation of poisons in body tissues thereby affecting performance of such tissue. For example lead (Pb) poisoning result in accumulation of lead in bone marrow. Its toxic effect manifest in skin and other soft tissues (mouth, nose etc.) as lesion.

    Direct effect on tissues or organs. Here some poisons like alcohol and other drugs react directly with tissues by producing reactive oxygen species or free radicals which binds to components of tissues and destroy them or make them depress in function. Others like strong acid and bases react directly with tissues leading to damages because they are highly reactive (corrosive).

    By depleting, inhibiting, sequestering or antagonizing important molecules in the body. Some poisons exert their deleterious effect by reducing the availability of important molecules or by analogously inhibiting its uptake from the point of synthesis making it not bioavailable. For example Calabar beans, eggplant, tomato, wild potato all contain compounds (in their raw form) that is capable of inhibiting the enzyme Acetyl cholinesterase which is the enzyme vested with a major role in nerve impulse transmission. Their actions affect the central nervous system as a whole and results in seizure.

    Some of the poisonous compounds can cause damage when they are incorporated into important molecules. They cause mutations in the information molecules (DNA) resulting in uncontrolled cell growth or malfunctioned new growth (tumor). For example afflatoxin (derived from fermented groundnut) and drugs like diethylstilbestrol (DES) has been reported to cause cancer due to their ability in triggering tumor growth.

    Natural and home-made antidote for any poison ingested orally

    Editorials Huge Health Medicals - 23:04:00

      home-made antidote for any poison

      What should I do if I discover my child or a relative has been poisoned?

      Though one will be moved by sympathy to cry or shout if a child or friend or relative get poisoned, this will not help the matter rather quick rescue options should be the major focus. In this article we will be concentrating on how you can cure or reduce the effect of poison naturally with home-made remedy while waiting for your doctor to arrive.

      In some traditional setting different people use different substance that to them can protect against poison or can cure poison. For example People that eat termite queen are believed in some places to be protected against poisons and that if the termite queen is eaten raw or roasted immediately after ingestion of poison there will be no damage arising from such ingestion. There are no scientific backup to these claims.

      In one of our article on toxins, poisons and toxicants; we clearly spelled out examples of naturally and artificially occurring compounds whose action in the body is deleterious or hazardous. These compounds are either ingested knowingly as food, or consumed unknowingly. When in the body their action affects major compounds, organs and tissues of the body and can result in certain symptoms and even death.

      In case one gets poisoned, what natural remedy is available in all homes? This article is written to affirm you with the benefit of having palm oil, olive oil, groundnut oil, coconut oil or any other type of consumable oil at home especially if you are nursing a child.

      Groundnut oil, palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, and other types of oil are natural remedy for various types of poisons

      Palm oil, coconut oil, ground nut oil, olive oil; are oils present in all homes and are used in cooking various delicacies. They are rich sources of fats and oil and fat soluble vitamins like vitamin A. Apart from the health benefits of consuming these oils, they present medicinal and pharmacological potency during poison and toxicity. Palm oil remains the first and most used remedy from ancient time till today and it is even used in subsistent animal farms to rescue goats that are poisoned with cyanogenic glycosides of cassava.

      How to administer the oil antidote to a victim of poison

      ·        Get any available oil; palm oil, olive oil, groundnut oil etc.
      ·        Small amount of salt or sugar can be added to promote palatability if the victim is a little child
      ·        Make the victim drink a considerable amount of the oil depending on the amount of poison or how reactive it is. Let the quantity not be a tea spoon administration, rather make him drink a small tea cup full of the oil.
      ·        Position the victim at right angle to a support to avoid vomiting
      ·        Monitor the victim till the doctor arrives or you reach the hospital.
      ·        Go with the suspected poison to the hospital to aid the doctor’s next action.
      Note: This antidote works if administered shortly or immediately after ingestion of poison. It must be taken before the poison get metabolized, absorbed and enters the systemic circulation,

      What is the mode of action or mechanism of the palm oil, coconut oil, olive oil, groundnut oil used as antidote for variety of poisons ingested through the mouth?

      Though research has not yet proved clearly the mechanism or mode of action of these oils which make them potent antidote for poisons, from the biochemical point of view, I will try to provide suggestions on how these antidotes may act to counter the effect of poisons. Below are possible mechanisms or mode of action of oils used as antidote for poison.

      It triggers enzymatic reactions

      Oils are hydrophobic (insoluble in water) molecules and have to be hydrolyzed and emulsified to very small droplets (micelles) before absorption can be possible. The property of some poisons is analogous to lipids in their hydrophobicity. Ingestion of the oil will initiate the action of the lingual and gastric lipases that plays role in lipid digestion. This enzymes are very hydrolytic and will hydrolyze the oil with the poison producing products of lipid metabolism and a less toxic to none toxic product of the poison digestion. The pancreatic lipase (that requires the action of the protein colipase) neutralizes the effect of poisons that may have escaped digestion in the stomach before it leaves the intestine.

      It shields the digestive tract against damage from the poison

      Ingestion of much quantity of oil flows and covers the epithelial and the mucosal surfaces of the digestive tract thereby providing shield to the mucosal cells against direct action of the poison.

      It inhibits or reduces absorption

      Although metabolism and absorption of lipids takes longer time than other biomolecules, ingestion of large quantity of oil makes the process even more time demanding. Bile salt is formed in the liver and secreted by bile and permit emulsification of the products of fat digestion into micelles (small fat droplets) thereby aiding absorption. During the increased oil ingestion, the bile acid available for emulsification is exhausted and the un-metabolized oil (that has the poison dissolved in) is not available for absorption and the excess oil is excreted with the poison through the faeces.