Cancer: Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention, Artificial and Natural Cures.

WHAT IS CANCER?

Cancer is an uncontrolled cell growth or tumour that invades the surrounding tissue and even spread to distant tissues.

OVERVIEW  OF CANCER

Cancer has been a major cause of death in Nigeria and other African countries, Asia, Europe and America for the past decades.
It is second to cardiac diseases.
What causes cancer growth

Many types of cancers have been identified and are diagnosed to occur majorly in five organs namely;
  • Lungs
  • Colon/Rectum
  • Breast
  • Prostate
  • Uterus

Approximately 81% of all deaths in United States is due to cancer.

PROPERTIES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF CANCER CELLS

It has structures and arrangements different from that of normal cells
Growth of cell cannot be controlled, that is it grows indiscriminately with being regulated
Capable of invading surrounding tissues
Capable of spreading to distant parts of the body through the process called Metastasis
They are resistance to effects of drugs

   
 

CAUSES OF CANCER

Cancer can either be caused by some predisposing factors or agents causing cancer (carcinogenic agents). Below are major factors that give rise to cancer growth (carcinogenesis)

A.            Factors that predisposes carcinogenesis

1.            Hereditary

Defect in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid - associated with the transmission of genetic information) can result in chromosomal DNA instability arising from an inherited autosomal trait
Retinoblastomas that occur in children is an inherited autosomal dominant trait

2.            AGE

Cancer can develop in any age but adults over the age of 50years are more prone to cancer development. Cancers Common to children below 15years of age include;
  • Retinoblastomas
  • Wilms’ Tumours
  • Neuroblastomas
  • Lymphomas and Leukaemias (Tumours of the haematopoietic tissues)
  • Sarcomas of bones and skeletal muscles

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3.            ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

  • It is the principal cause of more than 80% of human cancers, majorly chemicals
  • Smoking cigarettes and chewing tobacco
  • Consumption of food stuff infected with fungus like Asperigilllus which produces a carcinogenic chemical (aflatoxin B1)
  • Working with Assbestosss, Benzene, naphthylamines, beryllium etc
  • Certain therapeutic drugs may be carcinogenic


4.            SOME CLINICAL DISORDERS

Some clinical disorders can development into cancer or support the growth of cancer, such can be called precancerous disorders.
For example;
  • Leukoplakia
  •  Cirrhosis of the Liver
  •  Ulcerative colitis
  •  Carcinoma in situ of cervix.


B.            AGENTS CAUSING CANCER

These agents are categorized into 3 broad groups;

1.            PHYSICAL AGENTS

The UV rays from the sun and other radiations like x-rays, gamma rays etc can cause cancer. It achieves this through direct or indirect mechanism both targeting the DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid – a genetic information carrier)

2.            CHEMICAL AGENTS

Certain chemical compounds can cause cancer. Some of these act directly while others act as procarcinogens (inactive cancer cells that can be converted after metabolism to active cancerous or cancer causing agents or cells)

3.            BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

These are the oncogenic viruses ; RNA Viruses, DNA viruses.  These viruses target normal genes and disposes normal cells to change into cancerous tumour cells


DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CANCER


EARLY DISCOVERY CAN SAVE LIFE (PREVENTION)
Some tests can identify precancerous tumours before symptoms appear and thus can be used to prevent cancers from developing. Most tumours take many years to grow and form to the point where they produce clinical manifestations. Laryngeal cancer, for instance, appears only after several years of constant exposure to alcohol and tobacco smoke—a behaviour shared by many common tumours caused by environmental conditions. The size of cancerous growth differs depending on the location of growth, for instance, Cancers on soft tissues can grow very large before it can be able to interfere with normal body functions

BELOW ARE BASIC SIGNS OF CANCEROUS GROWTH :

  •  Unusual bleeding or discharge of blood or Interstitial fluid
  •  Persistent cough
  • Changes in in the position, structure and appearance of bladder or bowel,
  • Any thickened enlargement or lump
  • A disorder of the digestive system characterized by discomfort, heartburn  and vomiting.
  • A pigmented spot on the skin or a firm abnormal elevated blemish on the skin
  • Mild to severe pain on any part of the body that does not heal within two weeks should be reported to a physician who will diagnose for growth of tumour.

TREATMENT OF CANCER


Treatment of cancer is achieve using surgery, chemotherapy (use of drugs), radiation therapy (use high energy particles), immunotherapy (use of body’s own immune system) , hyperthermia (use of heat), stem cell transplant, photodynamic therapy (use of laser beams), Blood or fluid Transfusion.

NATURAL CURES FOR CANCER

Treatment of cancer using natural products are major controversy surrounding Medical institutions and other cancer research institutes around the world. The efficacy of these products they say varies depending on the genetic differences in different individuals and the type of cancerous growth. outcomes of such trials ranges from a year to even up to fives year of constant application while such a patient is reserved from from all predisposing factors of cancer.

The mechanism of natural vegetables and fruits in functioning as anti-cancer agents depends solely its antioxidant composition (like the vitamin D, vitamin E, anthocyanidins, carotene and others) that is capable of repairing damaged DNA, and antagonizing cancer agents (like the free radicals or reacting oxygen species, peroxides and so on) that may have been present in the body during the time of ingestion of the plant product. because of this magnificent function of fruits and vegetable, healthy living requires daily consumption of varied vegetable and fruits of differnet colors.

For the components of the plant not to be destroyed during processing (although this do not include methods like raw juicing), consumption should be raw and daily for better outcome. Some of the natural plant products with anticancerous potentials include:
  • Onions
  • Carrot
  • Gabbage
  • Lettuce
  • Cucumber
  • pineapple
  • beets
  • broccolli
  • turmeric
  • beetroot
  • apples
  • berries
  • pawpaw



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