Who is obese and who is not?

Before someone is said to be obese then the person has accumulated so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health, thus being called a clinically sick person.
This means that the body mass index (BMI) is
greater than or equal to 30kg per body weight. Note that the person’s appearance cannot be used in concluding the clinical status except confirmed
clinically by a Medical diagnosis.


Related post
What is Body Mass Index (BMI) and how can i use it in detecting my health status?


Childhood obesity has become a significant problem in Nigeria (other African countries), United States and some part of Europe. Overweight children often face stigma and suffer from emotional, psychological, and social problems. Obesity can negatively impact a child's education and future socioeconomic status. The cause of childhood obesity is linked to the Mother and her nutritional status during pregnancy; higher consumption of fatty food, less physical activity, and Overeating
WHAT CAUSES OBESITY?

CONSUMING HIGH CALORIC DIET
Weight is gained when the amount of food intake exceeds the amount of any required by the individual at that particular time. The food size and energy density of the food consumed determines the energy intake. Foods like high caloric foods or processed foods, refined carbohydrates, sugary drinks and alcohol

REDUCED SLEEPING TIME
If you do not sleep enough you produce Ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite. Lack of sleep also results in your body producing less Leptin, a hormone that suppresses appetite. The lack of sleep will double the risk of obesity as the individual tends to consume more food because of the high concentration of Ghrelin or reduced concentration of Leptin.

SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE
Leading a sedentary lifestyle promotes weight gain as the food intake does not equal amount of energy used. The individual accumulates fats as there is little or no physical activity/exercise to burn the fat.

THE TYPE OF SUGAR PRESENT IN DIET
Research has shown that consuming diets rich in fructose doubles the risk of obesity than diets rich in glucose (Read the article; Table sugar and Honey which has a high detrimental effect with Your health) Fructose rich diet affects the brain and has been acknowledged as a sugar that has a deteriorating health effect throughout the world because of its effect in altering lipid energy metabolism.

SOME PRESCRIBED DRUGS
Drugs like antipsychotic drugs, B-blockers, thiazolidinediones, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, antidepressants ( tricyclines, tetracyclines and monoamine oxidase inhibitors) also can inhibit enzymes and hormones  in metabolism resulting in Obesity

INHERITED OBESITY
People born with a faulty gene, called FTO, also from conditions in utero called genetic imprinting. Patients appear to take much longer to reach satiety (feeling of being full). People with the FTO gene prefer fatty foods and they are always obese.
It is also proved that disorders affecting enzyme LEPTIN that are involve in glucose metabolism can negatively trigger obesity. Genetic factors control on how body fat or abdominal fat. Abnormal receptors like melanocortin 4 receptor can also result in obesity. 

CLINICAL DISORDERS
Some clinical disorders results in weight gain and as such require a fast treatment. Some of the disorders include;
  • Disease affecting hypothalamus
  • Craniopharyngioma
  • Hyperinsulinism
  • Hypercortisolism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Eating Disorders- Binge eating disorder, Night eating syndrome



People who are obese can gradually improve their healthy body weight or maintain it by using some of the below management skills.
TREATMENTS OF OBESITY

CHECK YOUR DIET
Reducing the total daily calorie intake can help in reducing the fat storage. Diets sources should be varied on whole grains, legumes, vegetable and fruits while very little should come from other food sources. Oily and sugary foods should be avoided while targeting on weight reduction. Consuming foods with dietary fibre like the complex carbohydrates with water as you major fluid can help in reducing up to 8% of body fat within a short time.

PHYSICAL ACTIVITY / EXERCISE
The more physically active you are the more you burn fat. If your work is sedentary, avoid sitting for too long, always leave a taxi and take a walk. (Read more; staying healthy with Exercise)

SURGERY AND DRUG AS THE LAST OPTION FOR TREATMENT OF OBESITY
Drugs and surgery should only be considered;
  • If the patient finds it extremely hard to reduce his body weight, or
  • if normal body function is hindered or becoming uncomfortable
  • No weight loss strategy worked
  • Other clinical condition (like hypertension, cardiac disfunction, sleep apnea, or diabetes) is associated with the patient
  • If the patient’s BMI (Body Mass Index) is more than 30.


Drugs for Treatment of Obesity
Drugs use for the treatment and management of this disease condition are anorectic or appetite suppressant, reducing desire to eat, containing the compound Sibutramine hydrochloride
Here are some drugs a physician may consider, Slimex, Sibutramine (Meridia), Reductil  or Orlistat (Xenical).

THINGS TO NOTE
  •  Drugs has side effects
  •  You can become overweight again
  • Some patients may not respond to these drugs


Surgery
Weight loss surgery (WLS) is also known as Bariatric Surgery. WLS is a development of cancer/ulcer operations that consisted of removing part of a patient's stomach or small intestine. Those cancer/ulcer patients subsequently lost weight after surgery. This procedure might be beneficial for morbidly obese Patients.

EFFECT OF OBESITY ON HEALTHY LIVING
Some complications that may arise as a result of being obese!
Dyslipdemias, Hypertension, insulin resistance can develop as a result of being obese and often result in diabetes mellitus and coronary heart diseases. It may also affect other systems of the body like the Urinary system (Liver cirrhosis -Read Urinary system disorders), Reproductive system such as low serum level in male  (-Read disorders of the male reproductive system) and polycystic ovary in female (-Read disorders of the female reproductive system) and even psychological problems arising from discrimination, prejudice and unemployment all arising from poor body structure/appearance. Obesity generally results in    
  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Cardiovascular Disorders
  • Liver disorders
  • Gallbladder diseases
  • Gastroesophageal reflux
  • Obstructive Sleep apnea
  • Reproductive system disorders
  • Social and psychological problems
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Cancers


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