Diabetes: Types, Symptoms, Cure, Therapy and effect on Bone formation

Diabetes has currently affected over 350 million individuals around the globe. It is a disorder that affects metabolism (metabolic pathway). Increase in blood glucose levels above normal (Hyperglycemia) the feature of the disease condition. Diabetes is otherwise referred to as Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and has won Medical research focus since its discovery. 

Types of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 

Diabetes can either arise from any of the three conditions:
When the body can not produce Insulin (Type 1 diabetes Mellitus or insulin-dependent diabetes , juvenile diabetes , or early-onset diabetes) Insulin is a hormone that plays crucial role in metabolism. In this case the beta cells of the Pancreas that produce insulin is destroyed. It occurs to people of any age but mostly those close to 40 years of age and it is rarely diagnosed when compared to Type 2 diabetes. 
Diagnosing Diabetes Mellitus
When the cells of the body no longer respond to the available insulin in the blood (Insulin resistance), Or the quantity of a insulin produced does not meet the quantity required (Type 2 diabetes) . The condition progress overtime to worst (a point were the patient substitute other management tips with insulin drug therapy(Insulin Replacement Therapy). It is most prevalent in Obese and Overweight individuals. It is the only type of diabetes commonly diagnosed (approximately 90% of diabetes cases) and risk of development increases as one advances in age. 
Or 
During pregnancy Women may experience Increased blood glucose levels (Hyperglycemia) which Usually goes back to normal after childbirth or exercise (Gestational diabetes) . It is common in women with high animal fat and cholesterol. 

Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus 

Diabetes Mellitus can be diagnosed indoor using blood glucose readers. One can carry out a test by piercing and dropping a drop blood on the sensitive part of this reader and result is readout. Outcome of the test is compared to normal blood glucose range to be able to tell the condition. Higher values more than normal shows how critical the condition has gone. 
The three methods of testing for blood glucose level include :
 A1C test: result less than 5.7% is normal, 
Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT) : less than 100mg/dl is normal
Oral glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) : less than 140mg/dl is normal

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus 

Diabetes is closely related to disease conditions like Fatty stomach or visceral fat and Obesity
Nutrition can also be the origin of diabetes as fatty foods, abuse of alcoholic drinks, high salt, high sugar diets etc. 
Lifestyle pattern like smoking and leading a sedentary lifestyle can trigger other disease condition which will later usher in diabetes 
Certain drugs and compounds that inhibit insulin production or uptake (like insulin antagonist) or those that have the potential of  destroying the beta cells. 

Symptoms of diabetes Mellitus 

Increased urination (Hyperuria) 
Increased food consumption (Polyphagia) 
Lost of glucose in urine (glucosuria) 
Increased taste (Polydipsia) 
Lethargy
Blurred vision 
Smelling breath
Stomach pains, cramps, vomiting and discomforts 
Abrupt Weight loss/gain
Increased blood glucose or sugar level (Hyperglycemia) 

Complications of diabetes Mellitus 

(Occurs during delayed treatment during which treatment will not restore damged tissues) 
Damage to Brain, Nerve, Liver, Heart, Ear, Eye
Delayed wound healing 
Lost of fertility and skin, foot complications 
Hypertension 

Cure, Management or Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus 

All types of Diabetes are totally curable. Below tips are proven management strategies for treating or curing diabetes. 
Eat Healthy diet
Excercise regularly 
Avoid drinking and drug abuse 
Follow physicians prescription regarding taking insulin drugs for type 1 diabetic patients 

Therapy for diabetes Mellitus 

GLP-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are a novel class of drugs used for treatment of type 2 diabetes as they have the potential of stimulating insulin secretion, increase beta cell mass and suppress the secreation of the hormone glucagon. Currently, four such drugs available in the United States: 
Exendin-4 or its synthetic version exenatide, 
liraglutide, albiglutide, and dulaglutide. 

Diabetes Mellitus and Bone Mineralization (Bone Absorption and Resorption) 

Research shows that Diabetes mellitus often leads to the development of osteoporosis, a bone disorder. Both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can affect bone mineral density (BMD) and the risk of bone fractures. The impact of antidiabetic drugs on bone metabolism is drawing increasing attention due to the discovery of a association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and osteoporosis. Glucagon - like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is said to promote bone formation while inhibiting bone resorption. The mechanism of GLP-1 has arouse many research for example The research on The Impact of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Bone Metabolism and Its Possible Mechanisms by Chenhe an others (2017) has brought more light to the molecular process of the GLP-1 in bone formation and desorption. 
Chenke's work indicated that "such therapies may enhance BMD and improve bone quality, but the relationship between GLP-1 and bone fractures is still controversial. Further investigations of the relevant mechanisms have indicated that GLP-1 acts on bone tissue by promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption. Furthermore, the homeostasis of bone formation and resorption is essential to bone health and might be maintained by GLP-1 in normal bones and restored by GLP-1 in unhealthy bones."
Further Reading 

 Zhao C, Liang J, Yang Y, Yu M and Qu X (2017) The Impact of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 on Bone Metabolism and Its Possible Mechanisms. Front. Endocrinol. 8:98. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2017.00098
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